Reproducible Quality

Reproducible Quality

Complexity Can Introduce Unintended Variations

Unintentional variations in the image acquisition process can impact your ability to generate reproducible results and achieve a consistent standard of quality patient care.

Variability – between patients, institutions, scanners and imaging protocols – may conflict with the ALARA (As Low As is Reasonably Achievable) low dose mandate without adding diagnostic value.

Analysis of Radiation Dose Distribution by Hospital

In a large study (STONE), one of the variables measured and published in a separate letter1 was the CT radiation dose in kidney stone exams.  A wide range of practices and radiation doses administered to patients was recorded from 15 hospitals and 1,582 patients over 17 months.

Study Design: Data from the STONE study was later analyzed in a separate publication1.  Patients were eligible if the emergency physician suspected urolithiasis and were excluded if they were obese or at high risk for a significant alternative diagnosis.  The total number of patients in this study was 1582.

  • 200x variation in dose between patients.
  • 5x variation in median doses between hospitals (4-19 mSv)
  • 8% of patients received a low-dose scan of recommended 4 mSv or less

How do you address unintentional variations in your image acquisition process?

Dose Variation Among Patients

Basel University Hospital reduced the median dose for CT thorax exams by 67% (Mean DLP 245 to 81 mGy-cm). Using RadimetricsTM, dose variability between scans was also reduced between the 25 and 75 percentiles. This allows University Hospital Basel to perform CT Thorax exams at a median DLP 80% below the national Dose Reference Level.*2

When Reproducible Quality is Your Goal, Be Confident with Seamlessly Smart Consistency

The RadimetricsTM Enterprise Platform, together with point of care applications,*** offers a set of management


Protocol Selection


Scanner Operation


Contrast Administration

Improved Reproducibility

Improved Reproducibility Through Protocol Optimization. Your enterprise protocol library may contain a selection of outdated, suboptimal, or redundant scan protocols across your scanner fleet.

Inconsistent and unpredictable dose effects can occur if protocol availability and selection at the individual scanner is unmanaged. Image acquisition that generates consistent results may help optimize scans, which translates into better quality care for your patients.

The RadimetricsTM Enterprise Platform protocol management can help your department harmonize its protocol library to reduce variability.

Redundancies and obsolete instances can be eliminated when device libraries are mapped to a standard catalog. You can also promote consistent use by standardizing protocol names across all devices. In addition, the dose management software allows you to track dosing from each CT examination and calculate the average dose for each CT protocol. This helps you select the most dose-effective protocols.

Scanner Operation

Training Helps Achieve Consistent Scanner Operation

Advances in technology, coupled against a backdrop of budgetary limitations, contribute to an imaging environment that is increasingly challenging.

Technological complexity and scanner diversity can contribute to undesirable variations such as differences in radiation dose and image quality between users and shifts.

For example, even subtle changes like table height may impact the results obtained from the automated scanner algorithms. Beyond scanner parameter settings, scan range selection also impacts the total dose delivered.

The RadimetricsTM Enterprise Platform features interactive modeling capabilities. This powerful functionality allows users to review simulated scenarios and visualize resulting organ doses. Further, the visualization of tube current modulation facilitates the detection of an unintentional selection of scan parameters.

Contrast Administration

Prevent Contrast Variations To Help Improve Image Quality

Because contrast enhanced exams are among the more complex acquisitions, correct volume, concentration and timing need to be controlled.

With suboptimal settings, exams may exhibit suboptimal image quality. Rescans effectively double the patient dose.

Our CT point of care applications** for contrast media injections allow you to monitor and adjust volume, concentration, and timing. Contrast algorithms for consistent enhancement are available for:

  • Imaging of abdominal organs such as liver, pancreas, kidneys (P3TTM Abdomen)
  • CTA studies of the main and segmental pulmonary arteries to assess for pulmonary embolism (P3TTM PA)
  • CTA imaging of cardiac structures (P3TTM Cardiac)

Reproducible Quality: Perform Acquisitions with Consistent Results

Personalized Patient Protocol Technology

Higher percentage of exams considered diagnostic without limitation in CertegraTM P3TTM PA exams vs standard exams (100% vs 73%, P<0.05).3


RadimetricsTM: A Firm Foundation for Personalized Care

Once consistency has been achieved you have a firm foundation on which to personalize the exam regarding correct dosing and scanner choice.

The referring physician or radiologist should consider patient needs based on age, habits, and scan history. The indication and accumulated dose from prior exams may influence imaging decisions such as what modality to use (ionizing vs non-ionizing) and what scanner to choose (conventional vs low dose). Contrast dose should be personalized based on patient weight and other exam factors.

Dose Alerts

The Dose Engine accurately determines radiation dose for the patient and 26 organs. Non-ionizing modalities may be considered if critical dose levels are approached over a certain time frame for:

  • Young patients
  • Dose sensitive organs (breast, ovaries, eye lens)
  • Frequently scanned patients

Scanner Benchmarking

RadimetricsTM allows users to easily compare average dose levels per scanner for a given protocol, which can differ by 4 fold4. In sites with a heterogeneous scanner fleet, this helps triage patient sub-populations between low-dose and conventional or older machines.

Cumulative Dose Measure of a Single Patient4


“Before we had Radimetrics, one of our patients received a total of 14 CT examinations within 6 months and thereby accumulated an effective dose of almost 170 mSv. We came to the conclusion that some of those CT scans could have been replaced by an MRI or an ultrasound without impacting patient management. Based on this incident, we set a dose alert at a cumulative effective dose of 100 mSv.”4
Sebastian T. Schindera,
MD Clinic of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine University of Basel Hospital, Switzerland

Consistent Contrast Enhancement

Personalized protocol technology automatically adjust contrast media protocols to allow for differences in patient body weight, contrast concentration, total iodine load and a series of other configurable factors to improve image quality and manage within the specific hospital’s contrast protocolling guidelines. It allows for consistent contrast enhancement, even in complex studies and across a wide range of patients.



* The results cited represent the outcomes achieved by the respective institution and are not necessarily representative of every site. Results will vary based on a site’s existing circumstances and the quality of the improvement programs adopted by the site.

** Requires CertegraTM Workstation for Medrad®Stellant with CertegraTM P3TTM application.

*** Point of care software applications available on CertegraTM Workstation for Medrad® Stellant and Medrad® MRXperion injectors.

1 Smith-Bindman R, Moghadassi M, Griffey RT, Camargo C, Bailitz J, Beland M, Miglioretti D, Computed Tomography Radiation Dose in Patients With Suspected Urolithiasis. JAMA Intern Med. 2015;175 (8):1413- 16.

2 Parakh A, Kortesniemi M, Schindera S, CT Radiation Dose Management: A Comprehensive Optimization Process for Improving Patient Safety. Radiology. 2016;280 (3):663-73. 

3 Deible et al: A clinical evaluation of an automated software program (CertegraTM P3TTM PA) for patient specific contrast injection during chest CTA to exclude pulmonary embolism. Bayer Healthcare, November 2014 (RAD-INF-14-06087).

4 Schindera S, Practical lessons on Improving Safety, Reproducibility and Efficiency Using a Dose Management Software, University of Basel Case Study (G.RI.11.2014.0325)


Practical Lessons on Improving Safety, Reproducibility and Efficiency Using a Dose Management Software, University of Basel Case Study

A Clinical Evaluation of an Automated Software Program (CertegraTM P3TTM PA) for Patient-specific Contrast Injection During Chest CTA to Exclude PE. Deible et al. 2015. Bayer Healthcare, November 2014 (RAD-INF-14-06087)

Image Gently® Radiation Safety in Pediatric Medical Imaging

Image Wisely® Radiation Safety in Adult Medical Imaging